QUESTION: What significance would the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem have in Biblical prophecy?
MY RESPONSE: The rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem is an interesting discussion topic in Bible prophecy. Scripture intentionally doesn't answer all of our question in regards to end time events, so we are "forced" to try to fill in the blanks. Or, at least that what many prophecy teachers seem to do.
The idea of the rebuilding of the temple grows out of a belief that the anti-christ will defile the temple according to Daniel chapter 9. Whether or not that is true depends upon your interpretation of Daniel 9. The common teaching is that the anti-christ will form a peace pact with Israel for the first 3 1/2 years of the 7 year tribulation. At the 3 1/2 year mark, he will break that peace pact by offering an abomination on the altar of the temple. For that to happen, the temple has to be rebuilt.
I honestly do not see that clearly taught in Scripture. I think there are other ways to interpret the eschatological texts that do not require a rebuilt temple. If it were that important, I believe it would be clearly stated.
The purpose of Bible prophecy is preparatory, not predictive. The primary prophetic exhortation is "Watch and be ready," not, "Watch and predict." We have enough biblical information to be ready for Jesus to come, but not enough to know when He will come.
A rebuilt temple? I don't really know. If one is rebuilt, I'll keep watching, so that I will be ready. Jesus really could come at any moment! There is nothing left on the prophetic calendar, that I can see, that needs to be fulfilled before Jesus returns!